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You should never see them made. You should never watch them being made. Law and sausage are two things you do not want to see being made. No one should see how laws or sausages are made. To retain respect for sausages and laws, one must not watch them in the making.

Alexis de Tocqueville

The making of laws like the making of sausages, is not a pretty sight. The less the people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they sleep in the night.

No citation exists for where this German phrase or this translation originated. At no time there is more lying than before the elections, during the war and after the hunt. Volume 9 , 1st semivolume, p. Volume 2 p.

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Die Neue Zeit - Wochenschrift der deutschen Sozialdemokratie even spoke of a "self-admission" of Bismarck in ; however, the fellow social democratic magazine Das freie Wort attributed it to an unnamed representative of the Zentrumspartei in that same year. I am firmly convinced that Spain is the strongest country of the world. Century after century trying to destroy herself and still no success A Spanish politician in a political meeting said it for the first time and attributed to Bismarck [1].

Wikipedia has an article about: Tocqueville concluded that return of the Negro population to Africa could not resolve the problem as he writes at the end of Democracy in America:. If the colony of Liberia were able to receive thousands of new inhabitants every year, and if the Negroes were in a state to be sent thither with advantage; if the Union were to supply the society with annual subsidies, and to transport the Negroes to Africa in government vessels, it would still be unable to counterpoise the natural increase of population among the blacks; and as it could not remove as many men in a year as are born upon its territory within that time, it could not prevent the growth of the evil which is daily increasing in the states.

The Negro race will never leave those shores of the American continent to which it was brought by the passions and the vices of Europeans; and it will not disappear from the New World as long as it continues to exist. The inhabitants of the United States may retard the calamities which they apprehend, but they cannot now destroy their efficient cause.

I do not think it is for me, a foreigner, to indicate to the United States the time, the measures, or the men by whom Slavery shall be abolished. Still, as the persevering enemy of despotism everywhere, and under all its forms, I am pained and astonished by the fact that the freest people in the world is, at the present time, almost the only one among civilized and Christian nations which yet maintains personal servitude; and this while serfdom itself is about disappearing, where it has not already disappeared, from the most degraded nations of Europe. An old and sincere friend of America, I am uneasy at seeing Slavery retard her progress, tarnish her glory, furnish arms to her detractors, compromise the future career of the Union which is the guaranty of her safety and greatness, and point out beforehand to her, to all her enemies, the spot where they are to strike.

As a man, too, I am moved at the spectacle of man's degradation by man, and I hope to see the day when the law will grant equal civil liberty to all the inhabitants of the same empire, as God accords the freedom of the will, without distinction, to the dwellers upon earth. According to Tocqueville, assimilation of black people would be almost impossible and this was already being demonstrated in the Northern states. As Tocqueville predicted, formal freedom and equality and segregation would become this population's reality after the Civil War and during Reconstruction as would the bumpy road to true integration of black people.

However, assimilation was the best solution for Native Americans and since they were too proud to assimilate, they would inevitably become extinct. Displacement was another part of America's Indian policy. Both populations were "undemocratic", or without the qualities, intellectual and otherwise needed to live in a democracy.

Tocqueville shared many views on assimilation and segregation of his and the coming epochs, but he opposed Arthur de Gobineau 's theories as found in The Inequality of Human Races — In his Democracy in America , Tocqueville also forecast the preeminence of the United States and Russia as the two main global powers. In his book, he stated: Each seems called by some secret design of Providence one day to hold in its hands the destinies of half the world".

Tocqueville believed that the American jury system was particularly important in educating citizens in self-government and rule of law. In his treatise Democracy in America , he explained: Tocqueville believed that jury service not only benefited the society as a whole, but enhanced jurors' qualities as citizens. Because of the jury system, "they were better informed about the rule of law, and they were more closely connected to the state.

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Thus, quite independently of what the jury contributed to dispute resolution, participation on the jury had salutary effects on the jurors themselves". French historian of colonialism Olivier LeCour Grandmaison has underlined how Tocqueville as well as Jules Michelet used the term " extermination " to describe what was happening during the colonization of Western United States and the Indian removal period. As far as I am concerned, I came back from Africa with the pathetic notion that at present in our way of waging war we are far more barbaric than the Arabs themselves.

These days, they represent civilization, we do not. This way of waging war seems to me as stupid as it is cruel. It can only be found in the head of a coarse and brutal soldier. Indeed, it was pointless to replace the Turks only to reproduce what the world rightly found so hateful in them. This, even for the sake of interest is more noxious than useful; for, as another officer was telling me, if our sole aim is to equal the Turks, in fact we shall be in a far lower position than theirs: In France, I have often heard men I respect but do not approve of, deplore that crops should be burnt and granaries emptied and finally that unarmed men, women, and children should be seized.

In my view these are unfortunate circumstances that any people wishing to wage war against the Arabs must accept. I think that all the means available to wreck tribes must be used, barring those that the human kind and the right of nations condemn. I personally believe that the laws of war enable us to ravage the country and that we must do so either by destroying the crops at harvest time or any time by making fast forays also known as raids the aim of which it to get hold of men or flocks.

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Whatever the case, we may say in a general manner that all political freedoms must be suspended in Algeria. Tocqueville thought the conquest of Algeria was important for two reasons: Their taste for "material pleasures" was spreading to the whole of society, giving it "an example of weakness and egotism". Applauding the methods of General Bugeaud , Tocqueville went so far to claim that "war in Africa is a science. Everyone is familiar with its rules and everyone can apply those rules with almost complete certainty of success. One of the greatest services that Field Marshal Bugeaud has rendered his country is to have spread, perfected and made everyone aware of this new science".

Tocqueville advocated racial segregation in Algeria with two distinct legislations, one for European colonists and one for the Arab population. It seems that Tocqueville modified his views after his second visit to Algeria in as he criticized Bugeaud's desire to invade Kabylie in an speech to the Assembly. Although Tocqueville had favoured retention of distinct traditional law, administrators, schools and so on for Arabs who had come under French control, he judged the Berber tribes of Kabylie in his second of Two Letters on Algeria , as "savages" not suited for this arrangement because he argued they would best be managed not by force of arms, but by the pacifying influences of commerce and cultural interaction.

Tocqueville's views on the matter were complex.


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Even though in his report on Algeria he applauded Bugeaud for making war in a way that defeated Abd-el-Kader 's resistance, he had advocated in the Two Letters that the French military advance leave Kabylie undisturbed and in subsequent speeches and writings he continued to oppose intrusion into Kabylie. In the debate about the extraordinary funds, Tocqueville denounced Bugeaud's conduct of military operations and succeeded in convincing the Assembly not to vote funds in support of Bugeaud's military columns.

In his Report on Algeria, Tocqueville declared that Europe should avoid making the same mistake they made with the European colonization of the Americas in order to avoid the bloody consequences. Tocqueville includes in his report on Algeria that the fate of their soldiers and finances depended on how the French government treats the various native populations of Algeria, including the various Arab tribes, independent Kabyles living in the Atlas Mountains and the powerful political leader Abd-el-Kader.

In his various letters and essays on Algeria, Tocqueville discusses contrasting strategies by which a European country can approach imperialism. In particular, the author differentiates between what he terms "dominance" and a particular version of "colonization". The latter stresses the obtainment and protection of land and passageways that promise commercial wealth.

In the case of Algeria, the Port of Algiers and the control over the Strait of Gibraltar were considered by Tocqueville to be particularly valuable whereas direct control of the political operations of the entirety of Algeria was not.

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Thus, the author stresses domination over only certain points of political influence as a means to colonization of commercially valuable areas. Tocqueville argued that though unpleasant, domination via violent means is necessary for colonization and justified by the laws of war. Such laws are not discussed in detail, but given that the goal of the French mission in Algeria was to obtain commercial and military interest as opposed to self-defense, it can be deduced that Tocqueville would not concur with just war theory 's jus ad bellum criteria of just cause.

Further, given that Tocqueville approved of the use of force to eliminate civilian housing in enemy territory, his approach does not accord with just war theory's jus in bello criteria of proportionality and discrimination. Tocqueville was quoted in several chapters of Toby Young 's memoirs How to Lose Friends and Alienate People to explain his observation of widespread homogeneity of thought even amongst intellectual elites at Harvard University during his time spent there. He is frequently quoted and studied in American history classes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Tocqueville disambiguation. Montesquieu Voltaire Rousseau Malesherbes Pascal. History of liberalism Contributions to liberal theory. Democratic capitalism Liberal bias in academia. The Old Regime and the Revolution. France portal Biography portal. La guerre des gauches.

Gould, Kendall and Lincoln. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Contesting the French Revolution.

Major conservative and libertarian thinkers. Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 18 September It took a Frenchman". The Aristocratic Sources of Liberty. The Classic Texts and their Continuing Relevance". Archived 21 May at the Wayback Machine. Journey in Ireland, July—August Obama has a way of saying things that can be defended in a court of law, and Wood has fun pulling out real meaning from the soaring rhetoric. So, what is the Political Quotation Translation series? In some cases, the translation will clarify when a politician misspeaks.

Other times, the translation will do away with doublespeak and reveal his true intent. In all cases, the translations will be serious yet satirical. You may even discover a conspiracy or two. Have you ever read between the lines? That is what this book does: We hope you will laugh and ponder at what is revealed.

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