The acclaimed author of the best-selling The Road from Coorain and True North now gives us the third book in her remarkable continuing memoir—describing the pleasures, the challenges, and the constant surprises good and bad of her years as the first woman president of Smith College.
The jolt of energy she gets from being surrounded by several thousand young women enables her to take on the difficulties that arise in dealing with the diverse Smith constituencies—from the self-appointed protectors of the great male tradition of humanistic learning to the equally determined young feminists insisting on change. We sense the urgency of her efforts to shape an institution that will attract students of the s and beyond. As the end of a decade at Smith approaches, we see her realizing that she has both had her education and made her contributions, and that it is time now for her to graduate.
From the Hardcover edition. One might hope to learn from her memoir how such talent emerges, and how it finds its best employment. Also by Jill Ker Conway. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education , in that the division of education along gender lines as well as religious teachings on education have been traditionally dominant and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussions of educating females as a global consideration.
While the feminist movement certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education, the discussion is wide-ranging and by no means narrowly defined. It may include, for example, AIDS education. In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. Education for disabled women has also improved.
Improving girls' educational levels has been demonstrated to have clear impacts on the health and economic future of young women, which in turn improves the prospects of their entire community. Improving female education, and thus the earning potential of women, improves the standard of living for their own children, as women invest more of their income in their families than men do. In some African countries, such as Burkina Faso, girls are unlikely to attend school for such basic reasons as a lack of private latrine facilities for girls.
Higher attendance rates of high schools and university education among women, particularly in developing countries, have helped them make inroads to professional careers with better-paying salaries and wages. Education increases a woman's and her partner and the family's level of health and health awareness.
Furthering women's levels of education and advanced training also tends to lead to later ages of initiation of sexual activity and first intercourse, later age at first marriage, and later age at first childbirth, as well as an increased likelihood to remain single, have no children, or have no formal marriage and alternatively, have increasing levels of long-term partnerships. It can lead to higher rates of barrier and chemical contraceptive use and a lower level of sexually transmitted infections among women and their partners and children , and can increase the level of resources available to women who divorce or are in a situation of domestic violence.
It has been shown, in addition, to increase women's communication with their partners and their employers, and to improve rates of civic participation such as voting or the holding of office. In Pakistan, a negative relationship was found between the formal level of education a woman attains and the likelihood of violence against that woman After, The researcher used snowball convenient sampling, a sampling method where participants are referred. Ethical and privacy issues made this the most convenient method. An informant played a major role in gathering information that was then cross-checked.
The sample of victims of violence was made up of married women from ages 18—60 both from rural and urban communities. The study described different forms of physical violence that are already present and provided an idea of what women go through, even across communities rural and urban.
Education in this study was stressed to be the solution and a necessity in eliminating violence. A discussion of political and social barriers is needed. The relationship is a lot more complicated than it seems, women can be illiterate but still become empowered Marrs Fuchsel, Immigrant Latina Women ILW were part of a qualitative study of 8 to 10 participant groups, at a time, and completed an week program centered on self-esteem, domestic violence awareness and healthy relationships.
The Road from Coorain Leads to Smith College
Though this program took place outside of a traditional classroom, dialogue, critical thinking and emotional well-being were stressed, areas that should be acquired while in school. Lastly, though many of the women were illiterate they were still able to come away with a stronger sense of control over their own lives, an important life skill. Tagiyev, national industrial magnate and philanthropist.
Despite what might seem to have been a project worthy of much praise, Zeynalabdin Taghiyev had great difficulty in gaining permission to open the school.
He met with vigorous resistance; both from the Imperial Russian authorities and the conservative Muslim clergy. Education systems vary in administration, curriculum and personnel, but all have an influence on the students that they serve. As women have gained rights, formal education has become a symbol of progress and a step toward gender equity. In order for true gender equity to exist, a holistic approach needs to be taken. What led to the shooting of Malala was reduced to being solely about her educating herself as a girl. United States interference, poverty, and government corruption and instability were not addressed.
Micro- and macro level factors that get attention by international development agencies IDA vary. For example, reaching a quota of representatives in political positions macro level but ignoring how home life pressures micro level do not actually leave women at a position of free self-expression Stromquist, This ignores the possibility that national governments are not the most reliable or trust worthy.
Programs put on by FAWE Forum for African American Educationalists called Tuseme clubs in Africa, which are Non Formal Education programs, are explored as they have proven successful and effective but do not get enough support from the government to be replicated. The program is set up as an extracurricular activity that focuses on issues through tools like school newspapers, dance and theater. In this example, education and empowerment are tackled on outside the classroom.
Along with the custom of footbinding among Chinese women that lasted through the end of the 19th century, it was recognized that a woman's virtue lay with her lack of knowledge. Due to the social custom that men and women should not be near one another, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western medicine. This resulted in a tremendous need for women in Western medicine in China.
Thus, female medical missionary, Dr. Hackett of Indiana, United States. The College was dedicated in and offered a four-year curriculum. By , there were more than 60 students, mostly in residence. Most students became Christians, due to the influence of Dr. The College was officially recognized, with its diplomas marked with the official stamp of the Guangdong provincial government. The College was aimed at the spreading of Christianity and modern medicine and the elevation of Chinese women's social status.
This project raised the proportion of educated women. It was promoted not only in cities but also in rural area. Villages had their own elementary schools. Instead of only taking care of children and chores at home, middle-aged women had chances to learn writing and reading in local schools.
In the s, Chinese central government passed a new education law, which required local governments to promote 9-year obligation education nationwide  The new education law guaranteed education rights until middle school. By , proportion of female who dropped from middle school decreased to 2.
According to the fifth national census in , the average education length of females is up to 7. This digit increases from 7. However, the female education duration is still 0. This gap in higher-level of education is larger in rural areas. In the countryside, parents tend to use their limited resources for sons because they believe sons have abilities to bring more back and their contributions to family in the future are more significant than daughters.
In an investigation, parents are Boys are provided with more opportunities for further studying, especially after middle school. This difference became more evident in the universities. When time comes into the 21st century, university education is becoming more prevalent. The total enrollment goes up. Compare to the year of , which is the first year when college entrance examination was recovered, the admission rate increased from 4. Although women are assumed to own the same rights of general education, they are forced to do better in the Chinese college entrance examination Gaokao than males.
Girls need to achieve higher grades than male students in order to get into the same level university. It is an invisible ceiling for Chinese female, especially in the top universities. It is not a public rule but a mainstream consensus among most of Chinese university admission offices.
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According to a telephone interview with an officer, who declined to give her name, at the Teaching Office at the China University of Political Science and Law , "female students must account for less than 15 percent of students because of the nature of their future career. Women in Islam played an important role in the foundations of many educational institutions, such as Fatima al-Fihri 's founding of the University of Al Karaouine , the oldest existing, continually operating and first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records ,   in This continued through to the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries, when mosques places of worship and madrasas places of education were established in Damascus , 26 of which were funded by women through the Waqf charitable trust or trust law system.
Half of all the royal patrons for these institutions were also women. According to the Sunni scholar Ibn Asakir , in the 12th century, there were opportunities for female education in the mediaeval Islamic world. Asakir wrote that women should study, earn ijazahs academic degrees , and qualify as scholars and teachers.
This was especially the case for learned and scholarly families, who wanted to ensure the highest possible education for both their sons and daughters.
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While it was unusual for females to enroll as students in formal classes , it was common for women to attend informal lectures and study sessions at mosques, madrasas, and other public places. While there were no legal restrictions on female education, some men, such as Muhammad ibn al-Hajj d. While women accounted for no more than one percent of Islamic scholars prior to the 12th century, there was a large increase of female scholars after this.
Since the revolution, Iran was under control of Islamic rules , the progress of female education was affected by Islamic ecclesiocracy. Women are forced to wear veiling and are prevented from going to the same school as male students. Female students have to learn different versions of textbooks, which are special editions only for female students. Unmarried women are ineligible for financial aid if they attempt to study abroad. Throughout the past 30 years, the issue of female education has been constantly under debate. Iranian women do have desires and abilities to pursue further education.
An Iranian high school student can earn a diploma after studying 3 years. If students aim to enter colleges, they will stay in the high schools for the fourth year study, which has very intense study. Moreover, women have a much higher probability than men to pass college entrance exams. Islamic female are in need of achieving higher education and truth proved that their abilities are enough for getting higher education.
The education opportunities for female need more national attention and less regulations. During and , the proportion of women who participated in universities as students or faculties was rather low.
This situation has changed with time passing by. University enrollment was decreased under the influence of Iranian Cultural Revolution. The general enrollment population declined during that time. After the cultural revolution, the amount of enrollment was going up. The increase in the number of university students is accompanied with an increase in female rate. Islamic higher education contains 5 levels.
A Woman’s Education
The 5 levels are associate, bachelor's, master's, professional doctorate and specialized doctorate. It has changed after 30 years. Female rate has not only increased in the students but also in faculty. While formal education is prevalent amongst Iranian women, non-formal educational intuitions are an option as well.
Non-formal education in the Islamic Republic of Iran originated from the Literary Movement Organization LMO , which aspired to decrease illiteracy rates in the country. In the late s, LMO created adult literacy programs, vocational-technical schools, and religious institutions to combat high illiteracy rates. Adult literacy programs teach introductory reading, writing, and math in two cycles. While reading, writing, dictation, and arithmetic are introduced in the first cycle, the second cycle delves into Islamic studies, experimental and social sciences, and the Persian language.
Religious schools are another educational route for Iranian women. Their popularity is illustrated by the rise in the institution of "female seminaries" as of This led to the creation of the first female seminary in Iran. These institutions offer the opportunity to earn anything from high school diplomas to doctoral degrees. Newlyweds women specifically are educated on family planning, safe sex, and birth control in population control programs.
In addition, the government has established rural health houses managed by local health workers. In ancient Rome, upperclass women seem to have been well-educated, some highly so, and were sometimes praised by male historians of the time for their learning and cultivation.
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Some and perhaps many Roman girls went to a ludus. Boys and girls were educated either together or with similar methods and curriculum. One passage in Livy 's history assumes that the daughter of a centurion would be in school; the social rank of a centurion was typically equivalent to modern perceptions of the "middle class". Medieval education for females was typically tied to a convent.
Research has uncovered that several early women educators were in charge of schools for girls:. Ita of Ireland - died AD. Founder and teacher of a co-ed school for girls and boys at her monastery of Cell Ide. Several important saints studied under her, including St. With an OverDrive account, you can save your favorite libraries for at-a-glance information about availability.
Find out more about OverDrive accounts. Conway opens with her assessment of her life, passions, possibilities and the making of her decision to leave Canada and return to the United States to become Smith's first woman president. Settling into her new environment, she is at once struck by the beauty of the Connecticut Valley and the Olmstead-designed Smith campus - but also by the College's financial problems and a quarrelsome and complaining faculty engaged in disputes and trivial lawsuits.